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What are The Key SaaS Metrics For Your SaaS Business?

KEY SAAS METRICS

If you are a SaaS business, here are the key SaaS metrics that you must monitor according to the business lifecycle stage:

  • Growth drivers such as customer lifetime value, average revenue per account, total contract value and more
  • Profitability drivers like Customer Acquisition Cost and Cost to Serve
  • Sustainability drivers like Growth Efficiency Index

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) has gained strong adoption among enterprises globally.  It provides a host of benefits to users. These include lower operational costs than on-premise software, quick deployments, rapid product upgrades, flexible configurations, and seamless integration. Besides this, it also offers scalability, high availability, and security. 

As a result of all these benefits, enterprise adoption of cloud solutions has increased. Consequently, the number of businesses offering SaaS products has also increased. There are three different categories of SaaS solution providers that have come up over the years.

These include Pure-SaaS Solution Providers, On-premise Software Providers, and Integrated Technology and Product Companies. Where the pure-SaaS solution providers offer a cloud-based product offering, the on-premise software providers offer a combination of on-premise software and SaaS offerings. The third category of integrated technology and product companies offers integrated SaaS offerings.

Note that the SaaS business model works differently relative to the traditional software businesses. It has its own set of challenges in terms of pricing, research, sales, marketing, and finance. Thus, SaaS-based businesses need to be managed differently as compared to traditional on-premise software businesses.

Accordingly, the financial metrics to measure business performance for every type of SaaS business model are different. In this article, we will discuss the key SaaS metrics that subscription-based businesses must use to assess their performance at each stage of business.

But before discussing the key SaaS metrics, let’s first understand the different stages of a SaaS business.

Stages of a SaaS Business and Key SaaS Metrics

Business Life Cycle Key SaaS Metrics
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It is important for SaaS businesses to evaluate their performance using financial metrics that are appropriate at each stage in the SaaS business lifecycle. To select such metrics, they first have to choose between growth and profitability drivers. The ideal way for SaaS businesses to choose the financial metrics is to maintain a balance between long-term growth and short-term profitability. 

The following table summarizes the key SaaS metrics as per the growth stage of a SaaS business.

Growth DriversProfitability Drivers
Customer Growth DriversRevenue Growth DriversCost DriversMargin Drivers Cash Flow Drivers
CLTVTCV (Total Contract Value)CAC (Customer Acquisition Costs) Gross MarginsCash Flow from Operations
Subscriptions per Customer BacklogCTS (Cost To Serve)Recurring MarginsOperating Cash Flow Margins
Billings per CustomerACV (Annual Contract Value)R&D Spend as a % of sales Service Margins MixMonths Up-front
Number of CustomersAverage ACVSales Cost as a % of ARR Free Cash Flow
ARR/ MRR/ QRRMarketing Costs as a % of ARRNet Cash per Share
Average Revenue per User or per Account 
Sustainability Drivers
Sales Effective DriversRetention DriversUser Adoption Drivers
Growth Efficiency IndexCustomer ChurnProducts per Customer
Renewal RateNet Revenue ChurnVolume and Types of Support Tickets
LVR (Lead Velocity Rate)Quick RatioAltitude Metric
Sales Cycle LengthGross Revenue ChurnNumber of Features Accessed per Customer 
Average Length of ContractDollar-based Net Expansion RateNPS (Net Promoter Score

1. Growth Stage

The most important performance metric for a SaaS business is growth. That’s because the growth rate is associated with the financial success of the business. Besides determining financial success, the growth rate of a business also measures its potential to move in the lifecycle of the SaaS business model. 

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a. Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV)

The first growth metric that a SaaS business must calculate is the Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV). CLTV is a financial metric that determines the projected total gross margin value of a customer over a lifetime. It considers key drivers like Annual Recurring Revenue (ARR), Cost to Serve (CTS), and Churn Rate. 

In the initial phase of growth, SaaS businesses focus on increasing their customer base. Besides this, they also keep a track of growth drivers like the number of customers and subscriptions per customer. In other words, it may focus on customer acquisition (CAC) and  increasing customer subscriptions

However, these drivers do not assess customer growth accurately. Thus, it is equally important for a SaaS business in such a phase of growth to focus on the projected lifetime value of each customer or CLTV. 

As a SaaS business matures, it should focus less on customer acquisition but continue to track the number of subscriptions per customer. It can achieve this by optimizing renewals. 

Besides tracking CLTV, a SaaS business must also track billings per customer when it is in its maturity phase. 

Note that a SaaS business is able to measure LTV and CAC easily at this stage. That’s because it has more data points available.

But remember, that mature SaaS business implementing hybrid scenarios may find it difficult to track the Customer LTV and CAC. That’s because such a business model has shared costs or both on-premise and SaaS costs that require allocation. 

CLTV = (Average revenue per account * Gross Margin) * (1/Churn %)

CLTV Projected = NPV {[ ]T [(ARR-CTS X (Churn + Capital interest rate)) / (Churn + Capital interest rate – Growth rate)]}

b. Total Contract Value (TCV)

Another important metric that a SaaS business must track is Revenue. But unlike traditional businesses, revenue for SaaS delivery accrues and is recognized over time. Therefore, it is important to determine revenue using proxies, such as bookings, calculated billings, recurring revenues, deferred revenue, and backlog.

Note that backlog is the unrecognized revenue over the term of a SaaS or subscription agreement. It represents bookings that have not yet been billed and are determined from Total Contract Value (TCV). 

Total Contract Value (TCV) is the total value of the customer contract. It includes one-time and recurring revenue. But the recurring revenue to be included is only the revenue for the period specified in the contract. 

Note that SaaS businesses typically bill customers in advance for a year or periodically throughout the lifetime of the contract, such as quarterly or monthly. 

The advance for a year is determined using the metrics like Annual Order Value (AOV) and in some cases Annual Contract Value (ACV). Whereas, the deferred revenue from bookings that have not yet been recognized is nothing but the Backlog. 

The metrics to determine backlog for a SaaS business include the percentage of annual revenue recognized from contracts at the start of the year and the percentage of quarterly revenue recognized from contracts at the start of the quarter. 

It is important to note that the bookings and deferred revenue are evaluated based on seasonality and the seasonal cash flow.

To calculate ACV, a SaaS business must consider the following components:

  • New ACV: representing the new customer contracts
  • Upsell ACV: representing additional sales to existing customers, which include subscription upgrades or complements or expansion
  • Recurring ACV: represents ACV from existing subscription contracts
  • Churn: represents the loss of customers and/or revenue during the month,
  • Down-Sell: represents the portion of bookings attributable to offerings proposed to customers who renounce the initial purchase
  • Net ACV: represents ACV from new and existing customer contracts for a particular year, adjusted for lost ACV attributable to churn
  • Number of new customers: represents the number of new customers acquired over the month
  • Number of lost customers: represents the number of customers lost due to churn over the month 

Now, a business begins to collect money from its customers when it enters the growth phase. This is because the business in the growth phase begins to scale and optimize its operations. As a result, it starts turning its bookings into billings. 

Therefore the revenue-based metrics and calculated billings are the financial metrics that are more critical to evaluate at the growth stage of a SaaS business.

TCV = (Upfront and recurring payments over life of subscription)

c. ACV to billings ratio

Another important revenue-based metric that a SaaS business must calculate in its growth phase is the ACV to billings ratio. This ratio provides relevant insights to a SaaS business during its launch phase. 

Such a ratio evaluates the billing patterns and measures the billing efficiency for a particular subscription agreement. How? Well, the ACV/Billings ratio looks at the annual value of a contract and calculates the amount that has been billed to date. 

ACV = (Upfront and recurring payments over first year of subscription)

ACV to Billings ratio = ACV/ Calculated Billings

Another important indicator that a SaaS business must monitor beginning with the launch phase is the Average Revenue per User. 

The Average Revenue per User or per Account (ARPU or ARPA) is the amount of revenue generated per customer or customer account. It is calculated either on a per-month or per-year basis.

Note that a SaaS business stabilizes into its maturity phase. That’s typical because it implements a number of annual recurring contracts along with leads for new customers.

Further, SaaS businesses focus on upselling and cross-selling opportunities to grow their existing customer base of annual recurring contracts. They also make an effort to limit churn and increase billings. Eventually, as the business stabilizes, the billings and revenue recognition stabilizes, and the rate of deferred revenue eases. 

Therefore, it is important for a SaaS business to analyze the changes to ARPU. The key factors that impact the ARPA of a business include customer size, product mix, pricing, etc. The changes in these drivers help a SaaS business to understand the impact of controllable factors and competitive factors.

There are even scenarios when there is upfront billing without revenue recognition. In such cases, the SaaS solution providers must consider the unrecognized portion of the billing as deferred revenue. This represents the services that are booked and billed but not yet rendered.

Note that this is a controllable factor for a SaaS business. That’s because it provides steady revenues in the short term. Accordingly, the deferred revenue is considered as a liability in the balance sheet of a SaaS business.  And this liability decreases over the life of the contract as revenue is recognized. 

Also, a SaaS business can show growth in deferred revenue. This happens when the average dollar amount over the remaining life of deferred revenues increases without the actual revenues increasing. 

Thus, such deferred revenue growth can provide a SaaS business with a snapshot of its health. Provided it is considered alongside the average remaining life to recognize this revenue. 

Besides tracking ARPU, a SaaS business must also track Annual Recurring Revenue (ARR), Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR), and Quarterly Recurring Revenue (QRR). These are metrics that measure the amount of revenue that a SaaS business has to collect over the stated period of time. 

A SaaS business can measure these revenue metrics annually, monthly, or quarterly. These metrics are important for subscription-based businesses as they show the value of contracts and the business as a whole. 

MRR = (Revenue per month per customer) 

QRR = 3 X MRR 

ARR = 4XQRR

Total Revenue = ARR +Non-Recurring Revenue

Average Revenue per Account = ARR / Number of Customers

Monthly deferred revenue = Billings – Revenue

2. Profitability Stage

A SaaS business must analyze its profitability in terms of costs, margins, and cash flow. It should also analyze the metrics related to each of the above-mentioned drivers for each of these segments. Furthermore, there is a need to balance growth and profitability and implement the “Rule of 40” concept. The following are the profitability metrics that a SaaS business must monitor.

a. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) is one of the crucial metrics of SaaS profitability. Typically, CAC is not considered while calculating CLTV. This is because CLTV is nothing but the gross margin from the customer over the customer’s lifetime. 

But, CAC is compared with CLTV to determine and optimize the CAC payback period. CAC is similar to the cost to acquire a customer for a SaaS business. And estimating CLTV enables the business to assess payback and appropriate ROI on this element.

It is important to note that CAC can be greater than projected CLTV in the initial stages of a SaaS business. However, as the business grows, CLTV increases. As a result, profitable businesses are capable of maintaining a CAC that is significantly less than CLTV. 

CAC per customer =  (Sales, Marketing costs incurred during the period) / Total number of customers added in the period

b. Cost to Serve (CTS)

Cost to Serve (CTS) is generally expressed as a percentage of revenue. It is another important cost component that has an impact on the profitability of the SaaS business.

SaaS companies must have effective product and database server architecture to effectively manage CTS. An ineffective architecture may lead to an inability to achieve benchmark gross margins. On the whole, costs are typically large and unsteady, while revenues are more predictable. 

Note that in the first two stages of growth, CTS can be significantly higher. However, in the later stages of the business life cycle, it typically stabilizes. It all depends on the solution provider’s ability to leverage economies of scale and market maturity. 

However, it might be challenging for the SaaS business to stabilize CTS in some scenarios. One of such situations can be when a SaaS company has a complex product or database server architecture. 

Therefore, the SaaS company must develop a more modular architecture from the outset in order to ensure CTS stabilization. Furthermore, it must incorporate scalability as a design principle. 

CTS =  (Recurring Service Expenses)/ revenue

c. R&D

R&D spend as a percentage of Sales is another crucial financial metric that SaaS businesses must track. It compares the strength of the SaaS business with other companies. That’s because it reveals the effectiveness of research expenditure relative to overall sales. Note that the R&D spend is represented in the form of capitalized and amortized R&D costs.

d. Sales Cost and Marketing Cost 

The next SaaS metric to track in the profitability stage is the Sales Cost and Marketing Cost as a percentage of ARR. This metric showcases the relative amounts of sales and marketing expenditure to a company’s annual recurring revenue or steady income stream. 

Typically, SaaS businesses choose to service enterprise customers in the early stages of their life cycle. They do this to increase brand awareness and credibility. 

However, this approach has its own risk. Therefore, SaaS businesses must undertake these large projects only if they have the ability to not compromise on profitability and resourcing. In such cases, management must track these large projects separately. All this will depend upon the maturity of the SaaS business.

e. Gross Margins Costs

The next metric that SaaS businesses must monitor is the Gross Margins cost. This cost includes application hosting costs, customer on-boarding costs, customer service costs, R&D amortized costs vs. capitalized costs, and third-party fees. Though it is important for SaaS businesses to monitor gross margins. Such businesses should analyze recurring and non-recurring margins separately. 

Gross Margin = (Subscription revenue – subscription COGS) / Subscription revenue

f. Recurring Margins

Recurring Margins is another metric that SaaS businesses must track. These are the profits that are generated from running the SaaS subscription business. It is crucial for emerging software companies to expand operating margins. That’s because the investors favor companies with strong cash flows. 

Recurring Margin = Annualized Recurring Expense (COGS + G&A + R&D) / Entering ARR

g. Service Margins Mix

The next metric is the Service Margins Mix. This metric can help a SaaS business to determine the economic value of partnerships. It measures the contribution of third-party service providers and partners towards gross margins. 

This is an important metric to track for SaaS businesses, especially at the launch and scale stage. That’s because it determines the value proposition of partnering with third-party service providers.

Service Margins Mix In-house contribution = In-house teams service margins/ gross margins 

Third-party contribution = Thirdparty service provider service margins/ gross margins – To be repeated for all partners/ third party providers

h. Cash flow from Operations and Free Cash Flow

SaaS companies experience increasing cash flow challenges when they expand. On the other hand, the investors focus their attention on healthy cash flows that are linked to increased operating margins. 

Undoubtedly, it is important for SaaS businesses to know when they will generate positive cash flows. Though, the ideal timing of achieving a break-even point is inexplicit. The timing of cash collection can help a SaaS business in synchronizing receipts with expenses. This may include promoting upfront billing where the SaaS provider bills the customer the entire value of the contract at the beginning of the subscription period. 

However, only established SaaS providers can command such billing terms when contracting with their customers. Smaller SaaS businesses looking to bill in advance typically need to incentivize their customers through price discounts and promotions. 

Cash flow from Operations and Free Cash Flow need to be measured throughout the life cycle of a SaaS company. It is as important as analyzing revenue and profitability metrics. Typically, SaaS business incurs heavy investment in its early stages. As a result, the operating cash flows are lower in such a stage. Therefore, it is important for a SaaS business in its early stages to track operating cash flows so that it can prepare for future growth and profitability. 

It is important to note that cash on hand provides opportunities to expand. Further, it enables a SaaS business to increase investment in other aspects like research and development or increasing marketing spending. 

Moreover, stronger cash flows appeal to investors and demonstrate a healthy financial position of the business. But besides considering stronger cash flows, the investors also consider the impact of pre-paid multi-year deals while calculating operating cash flow margins. They adjust operating cash flow margins for cash from long-term deferred revenues. 

Free Cash Flow = Operating cash flow – capital expenditures

Operating cash flow margins =  cash flow from operations)/ $ 1 sales

i. Net Cash per Share

Net Cash per Share is another critical metric to monitor for a SaaS business. It is a measure of the company’s cash divided by the number of shares outstanding. Net Cash per Share showcases the percentage of a company’s share price available for immediate spending on other business activities. These activities may include research, marketing, or other financial activities. Plus, it is also an important liquidity measure that signals if the company would need access to capital in the near term.

Net cash/share = net cash/ Number of shares 

3. Sustainability Stage

It is important for a SaaS business to monitor its long-term sustainability. Special attention should be given to sales effectiveness, retention, and user adoption of the business.

This is because the sales and marketing function in a SaaS company works differently from that of traditional software providers. Further, measuring sales effectiveness in a SaaS business helps in understanding its performance metrics. 

It is important to note that the SaaS business must treat enterprise customers or large projects differently when considering sales effectiveness. Though undertaking large projects early in the SaaS business life cycle boosts brand awareness. But a SaaS business must weigh this against execution risks, profitability, and the diversion of resources away from product development.

a. Growth Efficiency Index (GEI)

The next SaaS metric that one must measure is the Growth Efficiency Index (GEI). This is a measure of revenue growth efficiency across launch and scale. It is a composite metric that combines both cost and revenue. This index looks particularly at the relationship between costs incurred to grow the SaaS business and the actual revenue increase. 

A SaaS business must identify both the recurring costs and growth costs. The recurring costs are the ones that are spent by a firm to support its day-to-day operations. Such costs may include the cost of goods and services, general and administrative expenses, etc. Whereas, the growth costs are the ones that are spent by the firm for growing its revenues. These include sales and marketing expenses and customer success expenses.

A SaaS business must aim to achieve a GEI of less than 1. This is because such a GEI level indicates that the revenue growth of the business exceeds the costs incurred. On the other hand, a GEI greater than 1 is an indication to recalibrate S&M spending. 

It is important for a SaaS business to track and benchmark the GEI as it helps in calibrating the growth efforts and goals of the business. It reflects the sales and marketing team’s effectiveness at generating revenue growth.

GEI = Growth Expense / ARR Growth

b. Sales and Marketing Spend Efficiency

Just like the GEI, this metric is also measured across launch and scale. The Sales and Marketing Spend Efficiency metric demonstrates the relationship between sales and marketing spend and revenue growth across different periods. 

Typically, this ratio determines the costs incurred in the previous period and the resulting revenue growth. As a result, it reveals the sales and marketing efficiency of a SaaS business. Therefore, it is extremely important for a SaaS business to optimize its sales force as it enters into a growth phase. 

In the growth stage, the SaaS solution providers start mapping their Full-Time Employees (FTEs) that are dedicated to new customer growth. They also map FTEs that are dedicated to servicing existing client accounts. Besides, SaaS businesses also link their investment in salesforce optimization to financial success using metrics like ARR/ Sales FTEs.

As the business stabilizes and enters into its maturity phase, the focus shifts to exploring upselling and cross-selling opportunities with existing customers. 

At this point, metrics such as FTEs dedicated to up-selling and FTEs dedicated to cross-selling gain significance The FTEs dedicated to up-selling are considered with a view on increasing subscription revenue. Whereas, FTEs dedicated to cross-selling are considered with a view on increasing product revenue. These metrics are monitored especially in the case of larger SaaS solution providers, who have sufficient manpower to staff dedicated teams. 

However, when a SaaS business is in its launch phase, its focus is on searching and acquiring target customers. In this phase, it is more important for SaaS solution providers to invest heavily in their sales force and marketing teams. This is because such an investment would ensure that a steady stream of qualified leads is generated and converted to paying customers in the least amount of time.  

Sales and Marketing Efficiency = Last period sales & marketing expense/ (Current period revenue – Last period revenue)  

c. Lead Velocity Rate (LVR)

Lead Velocity Rate (LVR), or Lead Momentum is another important SaaS metric. This metric measures the growth in the number of qualified sales leads on a monthly basis. This real-time metric is a revenue and growth trend indicator. Thus, SaaS businesses must track this metric alongside other forward-looking metrics. 

LVR is helpful when measured against sales growth. A SaaS business must assess the relationship between the two as it helps in detecting the underlying structural problems. Note that the sales growth should proportionally increase with the increase in the sales leads. If sales leads are secured but sales growth does not follow proportionally, this may indicate that either the sales team quality is declining or the product is not keeping pace with the competition. Either way, corrective measures should be pursued.

LVR = Avg. [(Qualified leads for current month – Qualified leads for last month) / Qualified leads for last month]*100

d. Average Contract Length

Average Contract Length is another useful metric that a SaaS business must track from the launch phase through the scaling phase. Typically, the SaaS business model favors a longer contract. That’s because such a model secures a more sustainable cash flow. As such, average contract length indicates the health of the contract portfolio of a SaaS business. It can serve as a metric on the basis of which the sales team can be incentivized.

e. Renewal Rates

Another important SaaS metric that a business must monitor is the Renewal Rate. The Renewal Rate is a metric that is used to assess the health and performance of a SaaS portfolio. Such a rate is the opposite of the customer churn rate, whether considered from the point of view of the number of customers or contract value.

Note that customer retention is as important as customer acquisition in a SaaS business. 

Thus, a higher renewal rate of a SaaS business indicates its marketing and sales effectiveness. Further, it indicates the loyalty of customers of a SaaS business. As mentioned previously, customer acquisition is key during the launch phase. 

Therefore, it is important for a SaaS business to understand its target audience behavior and track the effectiveness of marketing and sales campaigns during the launch phase. This will help the SaaS business in maximizing acquisitions at the launch phase.

For instance, a SaaS business can devise strategies and test customer-acquisition channels. It can direct its customer acquisition costs and efforts on the channels that yield the most customers and stable revenues. 

Finally, there are SaaS metrics that help in measuring the sales team’s effectiveness at converting a lead into a paying customer across the sales cycle. One such metric is the leads-to-trial conversion rate. This ratio measures the success ratio in persuading leads to try out the product. 

Then there is a trial-to-paying account metric. This ratio measures the conversion rate to the next stage, or how a lead becomes a paying customer with a signed subscription contract.

f. Customer Churn

Churn refers to the loss of customers or revenue during a set period of time. Thus, Customer Churn refers to the number of customers that have discontinued their subscription during a given period of time. This can significantly impact the growth of a SaaS company. Although churn rate may not be as useful during the launch phase. However, it is an extremely important metric to monitor as a company grows. At the growth phase, even a relatively low rate of churn can substantially impact the revenue and earnings of a SaaS business. 

For a SaaS business to undertake an accurate performance analysis, it must distinguish between revenue dollar-based churn and customer-based churn.

Customer churn is dependent on the size and the total number of customers. Thus, there is an important distinction between losing a top customer versus losing a bottom customer. That’s because customers in a SaaS business vary by size and value. 

Customer churn = #Customers cancelling contracts Total Customers*Elapsed time (annually)

g. Net Revenue Churn

Besides tracking Customer Churn Rate, a SaaS business must also monitor Net Revenue Churn. 

Net Revenue Churn is a metric that measures the revenues lost during a given period. A SaaS business may lose revenue due to the loss of customers or lower run rate as a result of reduced features or users. 

A loss of non-subscription-based- or shorter-term products or services can lead to revenue churn. 

For a company with varying product pricing, dollar-based churn is a more relevant indicator of performance. Dollar-based churn is also a key metric for larger companies, as the focus is to accelerate growth, which can be achieved through negative revenue churn.

h. Dollar-based Net Expansion Rate

Dollar-based Net Expansion Rate is another metric that measures customer retention at one point in time. It presents a comparative analysis of total revenue from existing customers for the current year against the prior year. Such a metric provides an image of revenue sustainability. Plus it is an indicator of customer relationship quality over time. 

Note that revenue churn and dollar expansion rates become important for SaaS businesses to track in the later years. This is because the business matures enough to up-sell, cross-sell and drive deeper engagement within each customer account. 

Thus, DRR includes the benefit of upsells, cross-sells, and price increases based on GAAP subscription revenue recognition. 

Thus, a SaaS business renews 100 percent of its revenue from the previous year if its DRR is 100 percent. 

DRR = (ARR at the start of the year) / (ARR at the end of the year)

i. Quick Ratio

Quick Ratio provides a view of a SaaS business’s growth efficiency. It combines two SaaS metrics that is revenue and churn rate. This ratio is used by investors and internal management to quickly benchmark growth performance.

Customer churn is measured in terms of net subscriber additions and net subscriber churn. It reveals the number of customers lost or the ones who did not renew against the total number of subscribers for a given period. 

SaaS businesses focus more on customer churn in their early years. That’s because their objective is to acquire as many customers as possible to gain economies of scale. Churn Prevention is the success rate in reducing churn over a period of time.

For measuring revenue churn, a Net Revenue Churn or Dollar Retention Rate (DRR) metric is sometimes used. 

j. Net Promoter Score

To measure the overall satisfaction of customers, a SaaS business estimates Net Promoter Score (NPS).

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